Photovoltaic systems are used in a variety of products such as calculators, watches, street lighting, parking ticket machines, space satellites, observation apparatus for oceanic and mountainous regions, and so on.
Photovoltaic systems (crystalline silicon type) are manufactured in the following four steps:
- Wafer process: a process in which thin plates (wafers) of silicon crystal are manufactured
- Cell process: a process in which semiconductive properties are given to the wafers. The cell is the minimum unit to be able to generate electricity
- Module process: a process in which the cells are wired into a matrix and pressed together with glass, encapsulants, and protection sheet to form a module (panels)
- System process: a process in which invertors, administrative meters, frames, and other devices are attached to the modules to produce the final system
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